Challenges of City-makers

Based on the primary and secondary studies, the challenges of migration are multidimensional affecting the entire ecosystem including the City-makers, the society, the government and the employers. The Kutumb has conducted study in consultation with multiple stakeholders like City-makers, employers, skill training institutions and service providers (Hostel, PG, Land lord of rented house) and secondary resources. The following challenges of City-markers and employers have been identified.


The most affected in the process of migration is the City-maker himself/herself. Most of them get Minimum wages. They are unable to afford for decent living.

Poor Living Condition :

Accommodation is the major problem for the City-makers. The low wages and high cost of living in cities forces the City-makers to stay in the slums or by roadside. While rented rooms are severely congested, open spaces are insecure arrangements exposed to the public gaze and eviction by authorities. They don`t get access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities. The extreme weather in cities particularly national capital is very harsh to City-makers and homeless population. The warm water during the winter or cooler or Air Condition is like a distant dream for many. This results in low confidence, lack of happiness and lack of dignity.

Unhygienic Food :

Most of the City-makers cannot afford two meals a day. Cooking food in small dilapidated rooms, their priority is quantity rather than the quality of the food. This is detrimental to their health condition.

Limitation Of Their Career Growth :

Due to limited formal education and skill training, the City-makers are stuck in their career. Lack of skill up-gradation, proper certification, absence of formal platform and limited network affect their career growth. The financial conduction and absence of time don’t allow them to learn advanced skill to enhance their career. In result, this limits their income as well as productivity. They hardly get any premium for their experience and skill.

Health Issues :

The living and working conditions of City-makers are often dangerous, dirty and degrading.  There is non- availability of water and sanitation facilities at work sites. In addition to this City-makers are exposed to several diseases including recent Corona Pandemic. This is because of lack of awareness, life style, food habit and economic condition. Rarely, they have health insurance. Local health services are in low quality and private hospitals are unaffordable for them. When situation becomes worse, they are forced to go back to their home town or exhaust all their savings in the private hospital.

Lack Of Happiness :

Lack of essential services, exploitation, family problems and no incentives for growth in career etc cause severe distress to them. Absence of essential services such as food, drinking water, sanitation is the reason of lack of happiness. Happiness has directly impact on productivity aas they would be unable to perform to their potential.


Low Productivity :

Due to non-availability of essential services and the resulting deterioration of the health be it physiological or psychological in the City-makers, reduces the efficiency of their work. Sustained health problems and a lack of overall satisfaction in their life start reflecting in their work which reduces the productivity. The City-makers has no encouragement for high productivity. There is limited or no actions taken to ensure their wellbeing. At the end of the day, this causes a vital human resource to underperform affecting their productivity.

High Attrition :

Generally, the City-makers take unscheduled leave for their health, family needs and treatment in the workplace. Lack of communication between employers and City-makers impact their continuity in workplace. This results in high attrition of employees, which affect business continuity or timely productivity.

Studies conducted by PRATHAM and KUTUMB finds that 52% of the youth leave their jobs within three months of joining and 78% of them leave within a year.